Exercises with Answers


  1. In very many cases the word order given is only one of several available. Students should not be discouraged if they have chosen a different order which respects the rules given. Much more important is to choose the correct words and the correct accidence.
  2. Where more than one correct answer exists in terms of vocabulary and accidence, the more obvious alternatives have been listed, but it is quite possible, especially for the more advanced exercises, that other equally correct answers may exist.


Exercise 1 (Chapter 9)

1. The cook never sings. Coquus numquam cantat.
2. The blackbird often chirps*. Merula saepe pīpilat.
3. The wolf kills the lamb. Lupus agnum necat.
4. We love [our] friends but not [our] enemies. Amīcōs amāmus sed nōn inimīcōs.
5. The sons are pupils. Fīliī discipulī sunt.
6. The goat eats the cow’s carrots**. Capra vaccae carōtās mandūcat.
7. We hail the queen. Regīnam salūtāmus.
8. I praise the philosophers’ wisdom. Philosophōrum sapientiam laudō.
9. The wolf does not fight with the bear. Lupus ursō nōn pugnat.
10. The lord watches the horse. Dominus equum spectat (or considerat.)

* Use pipilo, -are, as Catullus did.

** Use carota, -ae (f.). Although the classical pedigree of this word is questionable, it is part of the botanical name daucus carota and frequent in later Latin.


Exercise 2 (Chapter 9)

1. The neighbour will accuse the villain. Vīcīnus (or proximus) scelerātum accūsābit.
2. The girl will wear her friend’s bracelet. Puella armillam amīcae gestābit.
3. O wasp! You will soon fly. O vespa! Mox volābis.
4. I shall praise the athletes. Athlētās laudābō.
5. You will give some oats to the donkey. (Aliquot) avēnam asinō dabis.
6. We shall always work. Semper labōrābimus.
7. Then you will blame the doctor. Tunc medicum culpābis.
8. The athletes will now swim. Athlētae nunc nābunt.
9. The spirits* of the dead will not walk. Mortuōrum geniī nōn ambulābunt.
10. Queens will never weep. Regīnae numquam lacrimābunt.

* Use genius, -ii (m.)


Exercise 3 (Chapter 9)

1. The farmers plough the earth. Agricolae terram arant.
2. The lord will always wear a toga but never a hat*. Dominus togam semper gestābit sed numquam petasum.
3. We shall dance and you (pl.) will sing. Saltābimus et cantābitis.
4. The horse is the friend of the peasant. Equus est amīcus rūsticī.
5. The villain wounds the queen, the girl cries out, and I shall soon cry out. Scelerātus regīnam vulnerat, puella clāmat, et mox clāmābō.
6. The sons will ask for a bear. Filiī ursum rogābunt.
7. The snails will not hasten. Cochleae nōn festīnābunt.
8. I shall soon desire water. Aquam mox exoptābō (or dēsiderābō).
9. The sons and daughters decorate the cottage. Filiī fīliaeque casam ornant.
10. Villains will often sin. Scelerātī saepe peccābunt.

*Petasus, -i (m.) is vouched for by Plautus and Arnobius.


Exercise 4 (Chapter 9)

1. I do not wear a crown. Corōnam nōn gestō.
2. The lord will not wound the slaves. Dominus servōs nōn vulnerābit.
3. The horse and the donkey will eat oats but the goat will eat a carrot. Equus asinusque avēnam mandūcābunt sed capra carōtam mandūcābit.
4. The advocate will not praise the criminal. Advocātus scelestum nōn laudābit.
5. The lord blames the peasant but the peasant blames the wolf. Dominus rūsticum sed rūsticus lupum culpat.
6. You will soon praise the queen and her daughter. Regīnam fīliamque mox laudābis.
7. I shout but the donkey will not hasten. Clāmō sed asinus nōn festīnābit.
8. My son often works but my daughter always sings. Fīlius meus saepe labōrat sed fīlia semper cantat.
9. The girls will now dance. Puellae nunc saltābunt.
10. They will not put the spirit to flight. Genium nōn fugābunt.


Exercise 5 (Chapter 10)

1. The girl often sings today. Puella saepe hodiē cantat.
2. The lord will not wander across the fields tomorrow. Dominus trāns agrōs crās nōn errābit.
3. He was calling [his] friend. Amīcum vocābat.
4. The men are preparing the camp. Virī castra parant.
5. The doctor will never cure the child. Medicus infantem numquam cūrābit (or sanābit).
6. Formerly he loved the fatherland. Olim patriam amābat.
7. I shall never walk to the cottage without my son. Ad casam sine fīliō numquam ambulābō.
8. The maid is preparing the table but a frog is under the table and she cries out. Ancilla mēnsam parat, sed rana sub mēnsā est, et (ancilla) clāmat.
9. My friend was not a poet. Amīcus nōn erat poēta.
10. O master! You will scold the pupil. O magister! Discipulum obiūrgābis.


Exercise 6 (Chapter 10)

1. I love the queen’s child . Regīnae puerum amō.
2. Caesar always wore a toga. Caesar semper togam gestābat.
3. You will soon work elsewhere. Alibī mox labōrābis.
4. The queen had not praised the pig. Regīna porcum nōn laudāverat.
5. The man has delivered Caesar’s captives. Vir captīvōs Caesaris līberāvit.
6. The boy has walked from there to Rome again. Puer inde Rōmam iterum ambulāvit.
7. My friend had wounded the enemy in the war. Amīcus meus in bellō inimīcum vulnerāverat.
8. The small cook recently outdid the athlete. Coquus parvus nūper athlētam superāvit.
9. You [pl.] had wounded the sailor with a spear. Nautam hastā vulnerāverātis.
10. The pupil asked the master for a book. Discipulus magistrum librum rogāvit.


Exercise 7 (Chapter 10)

1. The barbarians recently killed the ambassador. Barbarī legātum nūper necāvērunt.
2. You will have fought with a wild boar. (Cum) aprō pugnāveris.
3. Here the poet will sing and praise his country. Hīc poēta cantābit et patriam laudābit.
4. Yesterday you were walking towards the province. Herī ad prōvinciam ambulābās.
5. The Romans will have outdone the barbarians. Romānī barbarōs superāverint.
6. You had sometimes swum here. Hīc nōnnumquam nāverās.
7. The tribune is fighting without a shield. Tribūnus sine scūtō pugnat.
8. The children will have been in the market-place. Liberī in forō fuerint.
9. You were dining with the ambassador. Cum legatō cēnābās.
10. The men had been working at another time. Virī aliās labōrāverant.


Exercise 8 (Chapter 10)

1. The tribune called the boy again. Tribūnus puerum iterum vocāvit.
2. She had often fought. Saepe pugnāverat.
3. The boys will have called the doctor. Pueri medicum vocāverint.
4. Tomorrow, I shall have watched the athlete. Crās athlētam spectāverō (or considerāverō).
5. They will not wander across the fields with my daughter. Cum fīliā meā trāns agrōs nōn errābunt.
6. I shall sometimes dine in the villa of the queen. Nōnnumquam in villā regīnae cēnābō.
7. The statue of the god is on the altar. Statua (or signum) deī in ārā est.
8. The pigs were under the table. Porcī sub mēnsā erant.
9. Once upon a time there was a queen. Olim erat rēgīna.
10. Julia had loved a poet but the poet loved a servant. Iūlia poētam amāverat, sed poēta servum amāvit.


Exercise 9 (Chapter 11)

1. I see a horse with a donkey. Equum cum asinō videō.
2. The queens were smiling and the girl laughed. Rēgīnae subrīdēbant et puella rīsit.
3. We had written on the white paper* with black ink. In chartā albā atramentō nigrō scrīpserāmus.
4. Yesterday, the pupil studied with the master. Herī discipulus cum magistrō studēbat.
5. The master will teach the pupil at another time. Magister discipulum aliās docēbit.
6. The ambassador will have warned the queen today. Lēgātus regīnam hodiē monuerit.
7. The lamb fears the wolf. Agnus lupum timet.
8. The barbarians frighten the lords but not the prisoners. Barbarī dominōs sed nōn captīvōs terrent.
9. You (pl.) will soon destroy the camp of the enemies. Castra inimīcōrum (or hostium) mox delēbitis.
10. We had had some horses. Aliquot equōs habuerāmus.

* Use charta, -ae (f.), a well-attested classical word.


Exercise 10 (Chapter 11)

1. I see the bright stars. Stēllās clārās videō.
2. You were lighting the cottage with a small candle. Casam parvā candēlā illūminābās.
3. O my dear son, a villain has stolen the queen’s jewels. O mī fīlī cāre, scelerātus gemmās rēgīnae abstulit.
4. The girl will paint a picture*. Puella tabulam pinget.
5. The barbarians had murdered the ambassador. Barbarī lēgātum necāverant.
6. We shall have eaten the cook’s cake. Placentam coquī mandūcāverimus.
7. The children are playing in the large garden. Liberī in hortō magnō lūdunt.
8. The child was writing letters on the wooden table. Puer lītterās in mēnsā ligneā scrībēbat.
9. The poet had not recently praised the beautiful woman. Poēta fēminam pulchram nōn nūper laudāverat.
10. Phidias sculpted a statue out of stone. Phidias statuam lapide sculpsit.

*For “to paint a picture” use tabulam pingere.



Exercise 11 (Chapter 11)

1. I often jump but I never run. Saepe saliō sed numquam currō.
2. Octavius had heard a nightingale* by night. Octāvius lusciniam nocte (or noctū) audīverat.
3. We were sleeping on the grass. In herbā dormiēbāmus.
4. The queen opened the small box. Rēgīna arcam parvam aperuit.
5. The barbarians will hinder our plans. Barbarī cōnsilia nostra impedient.
6. The ambassador’s cook saw the queen’s servants. Coquus lēgātī servōs rēgīnae vīdit.
7. You will have punished the neighbour’s son. Fīlium vīcīnī pūnīveris.
8. O men! You will listen to the ambassador. O virī! Lēgātum audiētis.
9. I guard the lord’s lambs. Agnōs dominī custōdiō.
10. My uncle had arrived recently in the fatherland. Avunculus meus (or patruus) ad patriam nūper advēnerat.

*Luscinia, -ae (f.), a word from Horace.


Exercise 12 (Chapter 11)

1. The doctor has not cured my sick child. Medicus meum infantem aegrōtum nōn sānāvit (or cūrāvit).
2. I am reading the book of an unknown poet. Librum poētae ignōtī legō.
3. The little boy will fear the bad wolf. Puer parvus lupum malum timēbit.
4. The poet loves a beautiful girl. Poēta puellam pulchram amat.
5. The grumpy* goat had eaten the cow’s carrot in the barn. Capra querula carōtam vaccae in horreō mandūcāverat.
6. The doctor will give medicine to your sick servant. Medicus medicīnam tuō famulō aegrōtō dabit.
7. I shall have been a famous athlete. Athlēta celeber (or praeclārus) fuerō.
8. The master will punish the lazy pupil. Magister discipulum ignāvum puniet.
9. The girl had heard a sudden, loud  noise in the cottage. Puella in casā strepitum subitum audīverat.
10. The diligent farmer does not sleep by day. Agricola dīligens diē (or interdiū) nōn dormit.

* Use querulus, -a, -um.


Exercise 13 (Chapter 12)

1. I will give you a new present. Dōnum novum tibī dabō.
2. The new prisoner told me a lie, but the enemies had already betrayed us. Captīvus novus mihi mendācium dīxit, sed inimīcī nōs iam prōdiderant.
3. Bear one another’s burdens if you have learnt true virtue. Aliūs alteriūs onera portāte sī virtūtem veram didicistis.
4. The traveller will have led you into an unknown country. Viātor in patriam ignōtam tē dūxerit.
5. The boy did not obey me. Puer mihi nōn pāruit.
6. The beautiful queen gave me her golden ring. Rēgīna pulchra mihi ānulum aureum dedit.
7. O lazy pupil, where is your new book? O Discipule ignāve, ubi tuus liber novus est?
8. The brave soldier wounded the criminal with his sword. Mīles fortis scelestum gladiō vulnerāvit.
9. I was telling you my story. Fābulam (meam) tibī dīcēbam.
10. The barbarians had stolen their arms. Barbarī arma eōrum abstulerant.


Exercise 14 (Chapter 12)

1. This is a good cook. Hic est coquus bonus.
2. That is a clever man. Ille est callidus.
3. Will you give me this wooden box? Dabisne hanc arcam ligneam mihi?
4. I had never seen that blackbird before. Numquam anteā eam merulam vīderam.
5. Is this boy your son? Puerne hic est fīlius tuus?
6. My children are clever but yours are not. Liberī meī callidī sunt, sed tuī nōn.
7. My cook made these cakes for you. Coquus meus placentās hās prō tē (or tibī) fēcit.
8. You will not touch those precious cups. Eōs (or illōs) calicēs pretiōsōs nōn tangēs.
9. Did you hear that? Audivistīne illud (or id)?
10. Yesterday, I walked in this beautiful garden. Herī in hōc hortō pulchrō ambulāvī.


Exercise 15 (Chapter 12)

1. The queen herself saw me yesterday. Rēgīna ipsa herī mē vīdit.
2. We love the same wooden box. Eandem arcam ligneam amāmus.
3. I have never seen the other of the two brothers. Alterum frātrem numquam vīdī.
4. This is another of my hens. Haec est alia gallinārum meārum.
5. I told him this myself. Hoc eī ipse dīxī.
6. I had never been in another land. Numquam in terrā aliā fueram.
7. The proud praise themselves. Superbī sē laudant.
8. Julia and Terentia have given a blue dress to the same girl. Iūlia et Terentia stolam caeruleam eīdem puellae dedērunt.
9. These are my friends but the others are my enemies. Hī sunt amīcī meī sed aliī inimīcī.
10. Have you [pl.] seen another child? Vīdistisne alium infantem?


Exercise 16 (Chapter 12)

1. My friend has six good children and two beautiful ones. Amīcus meus sex līberōs bonōs et duōs pulchrōs habet.
2. The second horse is white but the third one is black. Equus secundus est albus sed tertius niger.
3. Virgil is the foremost of Roman poets. Vergilius est prīmus poētārum Romānōrum.
4. The wolf had eaten two of my lambs. Lupus duōs agnōs meōs mandūcāverat.
5. The cook will make three cakes for the ambassador’s banquet. Coquus trēs placentās prō conviviō lēgātī faciet.
6. Yesterday, we saw the same man three times. Herī eundem ter vīdimus.
7. I had already seen the queen once. Rēgīnam semel iam vīderam.
8. Julius and Pompey, you will have invaded the land of the barbarians for the seventh time. Iūlī Pompeīque, terram barbarōrum septimum invāseritis.
9. “Where are your twelve hens.” “I do not know.” “Ubi sunt duodecim gallinae tuae?” “Nesciō.”
10. The fourth athlete will come soon. Athlēta quartus mox veniet.


Exercise 17 (Chapter 12)

1. That British girl is loved by a tribune. Ea (or illa) puella Britannica ā tribūnō amātur.
2. This house was built by my uncle. Domus haec ab avunculō (or ā patruō) aedificāta est.
3. The golden box will be opened by the queen. Arca aurea ā regīnā aperiētur.
4. The Romans had been frightened by many barbarians. Rōmānī ā multīs barbarīs territī erant.
5. I was being blamed for [ob] our delay. Ob moram nostram culpābar.
6. You will have been happy for a long time. Felix diū fueris.
7. My friends were praised by the wise teacher. Amīcī meī ā magistrō sapientī laudātī sunt.
8. Helena’s beauty has been praised by many poets. Helenae pulchritudō ā multīs poetīs laudāta est.
9. You were being led into an ambush. In īnsidiās dūcēbāris.
10. The games of the young men were hindered by a great storm. Adulēscentium (or iuvenum) lūdī magnā tempestāte impeditī sunt.


Exercise 18 (Chapter 13)

1. Your (pl.) king is just and brave. Rēx vester iūstus et fortis est.
2. My father works and sings sweet songs. Pater meus labōrat et dulcia carmina cantat.
3. My good mother often smiled. Mea mater bona saepe subrīdēbat.
4. The robber had wounded my sister’s head. Latrō caput sorōris meae vulnerāverat.
5. This beautiful maiden loves a brave soldier. Haec pulchra virgō mīlitem fortem amat.
6. This man will be sent into a dark prison for he is guilty. Hic in obscūrum carcerem mittētur nam est nocēns.
7. We are often punished by our peevish old uncle. Ā nostrō patruō (or avunculō) querulō et veterī saepe pūnīmur.
8. A short speech will be made* by Cicero. Oratiō brevis ā Cicerōne habēbitur.
9. We are writing a song** about a gentle girl and a flower. Carmen dē puellā dulcī et flōre scrībimus.
10. The cruel king killed the innocent children. Rēx crūdēlis lībērōs innocentēs necāvit (or occīdit).

* Latin says “to have a speech”.

** The expression carmen scribere is good Latin.


Exercise 19 (Chapter 13)

1. The country was finally saved by the brave king. Tandem patria ā rēge fortī servāta est.
2. The gentle lamb had been suddenly attacked by a cruel lion. Agnus dulcis ā leōne crūdēlī subitō oppugnātus erat.
3. Enough loaves for the huge army had scarcely been baked by three bakers. Satis pānum (or panium or pānēs) prō exercitū ingentī vix ā tribus pīstōribus coctī erant.
4. The bird’s song was often listened to by the sad prisoner. Avis carmen ā captīvō tristī saepe audiēbātur.
5. My friend had been attacked but he immediately defended himself. Amīcus meus oppugnātus erat sed statim sē dēfendit.
6. Were you warned in vain about this new danger? Frūstrāne dē hōc perīculō novō monitus es?
7. Heavy stones were carried by the old men. Lapidēs gravēs ā senibus ferēbantur.
8. At first I approved this philosopher but then I despised his teaching. Prīmum hunc philosophum probābam, sed tunc doctrinam contempsī.
9. Your leg will be cured by the powerful medicine of the wise woman. Crūs tuum sapientis mulieris potentī medicīnā cūrābitur.
10. This consul often changes the law. Hic cōnsul saepe lēgem mūtat.


Exercise 20 (Chapter 13)

1. I once saw the king cooking. Rēgem coquentem semel vīdī.
2. The land to be ploughed is fertile. Terra aranda fertilis est.
3. The children were about to eat. Līberī mandūcātūrī erant.
4. Having been at last set free the ambassadors of Greece will praise the judge. Graeciae lēgātī tandem līberātī iūdicem laudābunt.
5. My brother was about to laugh. Frāter meus erat rīsūrus.
6. The gentle mother calmed the mind of the frightened child. Māter dulcis animum puerī territī sēdāvit.
7. We were eating a rabbit cooked with spices. Cunīculum condimentīs coctum mandūcābāmus.
8. You were about to meet the general. Imperātōrem conventūrus erās.
9. The slave will kill the chicken that ought to be cooked. Servus pullum coquendum necābit.
10. My father had been attacked by a criminal worthy to be punished*. Pater meus ā scelestō pūniendō (or castigandō) oppugnātus erat.

*Use a gerundive to translate the last four words.


Exercise 21 (Chapter 14)

1. This man has never used a sword. Hic gladiō numquam ūsus est.
2. The king will promise to set three prisoners free. Rēx trēs captīvōs līberāre pollicēbitur.
3. These men are flattering you. Hī tibī blandiuntur.
4. The sun was rising. Sōl oriēbātur.
5. The courtiers imitate their lord. Aulicī dominum imitantur.
6. If the sailors drink too much wine you will have encouraged them in this. Sī nautae nimis vīnī bibunt eōs in hōc hortātus eris.
7. You shall speak for the just cause if you are a just advocate. Prō iūstā causā loquēris sī iūstus advocātus es.
8. We had been accustomed to suffer poverty. Paupertātem patī solitī erāmus.
9. One of the two has died and the other has rejoiced. Alter mortuus est alterque gāvīsus est.
10. I have never dared kill a fly. Muscam numquam necāre ausus sum.


Exercise 22 (Chapter 14)

1. The sweet fruit (s.) will be eaten by those ducks. Frūctus dulcis ab anatibus illīs (or istīs or iīs) mandūcābitur.
2. The prophet cured the leper by the touch of his hand. Prophēta leprōsum tactū manūs cūrāvit.
3. At length, Marcus saw the face of the beloved maiden. Marcus tandem dilectæ virginis vultum vidit.
4. Huntsman, have you heard the sound of the bronze horn? O Venātor, audīvistīne sonitum cornūs aēneī?
5. It was a long day. Erat longus diēs.
6. Hope is always to be kept for in three days Cæsar will be in Britain. Spēs semper servanda est nam tribus diēbus Caesar in Britanniā erit.
7. Regulus did not stay in Rome because he had promised this to the Carthaginians. Rēgulus Rōmae nōn morātus est quia hoc Carthāginiēnsibus pollicitus erat.
8. Do you see the first line of battle? Vidēsne prīmam aciem?
9. A long poem has been written by Lucretius about the nature of things. Longum carmen ā Lucrētiō dē rērum nātūrā scriptum est.
10. These men fight with long bows and short arrows. Hī arcubus† longīs sagittīsque brevibus pugnant.

† You probably wrote “arcibus”, but  arcus, a bow, keeps the archaic ablative form “arcubus”.


Exercise 23 (Chapter 14)

1. Marcus was lying on the ground. Marcus humī iacēbat.
2. After the return of Cæsar we shall live in Rome. Post Caesaris reditum Rōmae habitābimus.
3. Are you happy at home? Esne felix domī?
4. Our friends lived in the country. Amīcī nostrī rūrī habitābant.
5. The son of the leader of the barbarians was not cured by a Roman doctor. Fīlius dūcis barbarōrum ā medicō Rōmānō nōn cūrātus est.
6. My son had been cured by this medicine. Fīlius meus hāc medicīnā cūrātus erat.
7. We were being delayed by an ambush. Insidiīs dētinēbāmur.
8. The British maidens had been attacked by robbers. Virginēs Britannicae ā latrōnibus oppugnātae erant.
9. The weeping mother looks after her wounded child. Māter flēns puerum vulnerātum custōdit.
10. Brutus’s new house was burnt by a villain in the middle of the night. Domus Brūti nova mediā nocte ā scelerātō incēnsa est.


Exercise 24 (Chapter 14)

1. I came, I saw, I conquered. Vēnī, vīdī, vīcī.
2. The door being open, we heard the lion approaching. Iānuā apertā, leōnem appropinquantem audīvimus.
3. The lamb was frightened when it saw the wolf. Agnus vidēns lupum territus est.
4. When the city had been destroyed the barbarians invaded the country. Urbe dēlētā barbarī terram invāsērunt.
5. I shall believe you when I see him. Eō vīsō tibī crēdam.
6. Peace having been obtained, the gates of war were closed by the Romans. Pace obtentā bellī portae ā Rōmānīs clausae sunt.
7. We came to this city three years ago, but now we are going home. Abhinc trēs annōs ad hanc urbem vēnimus sed nunc domum īmus.
8. Yesterday the speaker was speaking for three hours. Herī orātor trēs hōrās loquēbātur.
9. The rest of the men were poor. Reliquī (virī or virōrum) erant pauperēs.
10. Do the courtiers always please the king? Placentne aulicī semper rēgi?


Exercise 25 (Chapter 14)

1. This is a book to be read by wise men. Hic liber est ā sapientibus legendus.
2. Having heard the arguments of Cicero my opinion concerning the gods is confirmed. Cicerōnis argūmentīs auditīs sententia mea dē deīs (or dīs) confirmāta est.
3. This house is not suitable for that family. Haec domus illī familiae nōn idōnea est.
4. These frying-pans are useful to the cook. Hae sartāginēs coquō ūtilēs sunt (or prōsunt).
5. Ophelia died of sorrow six years ago. Ophelia abhinc sex annōs dolōre mortua est.
6. The learned slave had come from a Greek ship. Servus doctus ā nāvī Graecā vēnerat.
7. The joyful legions reached Italy in two weeks*. Legiōnēs laetae ad Italiam duābus hebdomadibus pērvēnērunt.
8. The criminal is unworthy of praise. Scelestus laude indignus est.
9. Vercingetorix was coming from Paris. Vercingetorix ā Lūtētiā veniēbat.
10. When Portia knew the death of her husband, she wept for three days and nights. Portia, maritī morte cognitā, trēs diēs noctēsque lacrimābat (or flēbat).

* For “week” use hebdomas, hebdomadis (f.). This is a Greek word adopted into Latin with the spread of Christianity. Apart from the unfamiliar nominative singular it declines according to the third declension.