Exercises with Answers


  1. In very many cases the word order given is only one of several available. Students should not be discouraged if they have chosen a different order which respects the rules given. Much more important is to choose the correct words and the correct accidence.
  2. Where more than one correct answer exists in terms of vocabulary and accidence, the more obvious alternatives have been listed, but it is quite possible, especially for the more advanced exercises, that other equally correct answers may exist.


Exercise 1 (Chapter 9)

1. The cook never sings. Coquus numquam cantat.
2. The blackbird often chirps*. Merula saepe pīpilat.
3. The wolf kills the lamb. Lupus agnum necat.
4. We love [our] friends but not [our] enemies. Amīcōs amāmus sed nōn inimīcōs.
5. The sons are pupils. Fīliī discipulī sunt.
6. The goat eats the cow’s carrots**. Capra vaccae carōtās mandūcat.
7. We hail the queen. Regīnam salūtāmus.
8. I praise the philosophers’ wisdom. Philosophōrum sapientiam laudō.
9. The wolf does not fight with the bear. Lupus ursō nōn pugnat.
10. The lord watches the horse. Dominus equum spectat (or considerat.)

* Use pipilo, -are, as Catullus did.

** Use carota, -ae (f.). Although the classical pedigree of this word is questionable, it is part of the botanical name daucus carota and frequent in later Latin.


Exercise 2 (Chapter 9)

1. The neighbour will accuse the villain. Vīcīnus (or proximus) scelerātum accūsābit.
2. The girl will wear her friend’s bracelet. Puella armillam amīcae gestābit.
3. O wasp! You will soon fly. O vespa! Mox volābis.
4. I shall praise the athletes. Athlētās laudābō.
5. You will give some oats to the donkey. (Aliquot) avēnam asinō dabis.
6. We shall always work. Semper labōrābimus.
7. Then you will blame the doctor. Tunc medicum culpābis.
8. The athletes will now swim. Athlētae nunc nābunt.
9. The spirits* of the dead will not walk. Mortuōrum geniī nōn ambulābunt.
10. Queens will never weep. Regīnae numquam lacrimābunt.

* Use genius, -ii (m.)


Exercise 3 (Chapter 9)

1. The farmers plough the earth. Agricolae terram arant.
2. The lord will always wear a toga but never a hat*. Dominus togam semper gestābit sed numquam petasum.
3. We shall dance and you (pl.) will sing. Saltābimus et cantābitis.
4. The horse is the friend of the peasant. Equus est amīcus rūsticī.
5. The villain wounds the queen, the girl cries out, and I shall soon cry out. Scelerātus regīnam vulnerat, puella clāmat, et mox clāmābō.
6. The sons will ask for a bear. Filiī ursum rogābunt.
7. The snails will not hasten. Cochleae nōn festīnābunt.
8. I shall soon desire water. Aquam mox exoptābō (or dēsiderābō).
9. The sons and daughters decorate the cottage. Filiī fīliaeque casam ornant.
10. Villains will often sin. Scelerātī saepe peccābunt.

*Petasus, -i (m.) is vouched for by Plautus and Arnobius.


Exercise 4 (Chapter 9)

1. I do not wear a crown. Corōnam nōn gestō.
2. The lord will not wound the slaves. Dominus servōs nōn vulnerābit.
3. The horse and the donkey will eat oats but the goat will eat a carrot. Equus asinusque avēnam mandūcābunt sed capra carōtam mandūcābit.
4. The advocate will not praise the criminal. Advocātus scelestum nōn laudābit.
5. The lord blames the peasant but the peasant blames the wolf. Dominus rūsticum sed rūsticus lupum culpat.
6. You will soon praise the queen and her daughter. Regīnam fīliamque mox laudābis.
7. I shout but the donkey will not hasten. Clāmō sed asinus nōn festīnābit.
8. My son often works but my daughter always sings. Fīlius meus saepe labōrat sed fīlia semper cantat.
9. The girls will now dance. Puellae nunc saltābunt.
10. They will not put the spirit to flight. Genium nōn fugābunt.


Exercise 5 (Chapter 10)

1. The girl often sings today. Puella saepe hodiē cantat.
2. The lord will not wander across the fields tomorrow. Dominus trāns agrōs crās nōn errābit.
3. He was calling [his] friend. Amīcum vocābat.
4. The men are preparing the camp. Virī castra parant.
5. The doctor will never cure the child. Medicus infantem numquam cūrābit (or sanābit).
6. Formerly he loved the fatherland. Olim patriam amābat.
7. I shall never walk to the cottage without my son. Ad casam sine fīliō numquam ambulābō.
8. The maid is preparing the table but a frog is under the table and she cries out. Ancilla mēnsam parat, sed rana sub mēnsā est, et (ancilla) clāmat.
9. My friend was not a poet. Amīcus nōn erat poēta.
10. O master! You will scold the pupil. O magister! Discipulum obiūrgābis.


Exercise 6 (Chapter 10)

1. I love the queen’s child . Regīnae puerum amō.
2. Caesar always wore a toga. Caesar semper togam gestābat.
3. You will soon work elsewhere. Alibī mox labōrābis.
4. The queen had not praised the pig. Regīna porcum nōn laudāverat.
5. The man has delivered Caesar’s captives. Vir captīvōs Caesaris līberāvit.
6. The boy has walked from there to Rome again. Puer inde Rōmam iterum ambulāvit.
7. My friend had wounded the enemy in the war. Amīcus meus in bellō inimīcum vulnerāverat.
8. The small cook recently outdid the athlete. Coquus parvus nūper athlētam superāvit.
9. You [pl.] had wounded the sailor with a spear. Nautam hastā vulnerāverātis.
10. The pupil asked the master for a book. Discipulus magistrum librum rogāvit.


Exercise 7 (Chapter 10)

1. The barbarians recently killed the ambassador. Barbarī legātum nūper necāvērunt.
2. You will have fought with a wild boar. (Cum) aprō pugnāveris.
3. Here the poet will sing and praise his country. Hīc poēta cantābit et patriam laudābit.
4. Yesterday you were walking towards the province. Herī ad prōvinciam ambulābās.
5. The Romans will have outdone the barbarians. Romānī barbarōs superāverint.
6. You had sometimes swum here. Hīc nōnnumquam nāverās.
7. The tribune is fighting without a shield. Tribūnus sine scūtō pugnat.
8. The children will have been in the market-place. Liberī in forō fuerint.
9. You were dining with the ambassador. Cum legatō cēnābās.
10. The men had been working at another time. Virī aliās labōrāverant.


Exercise 8 (Chapter 10)

1. The tribune called the boy again. Tribūnus puerum iterum vocāvit.
2. She had often fought. Saepe pugnāverat.
3. The boys will have called the doctor. Pueri medicum vocāverint.
4. Tomorrow, I shall have watched the athlete. Crās athlētam spectāverō (or considerāverō).
5. They will not wander across the fields with my daughter. Cum fīliā meā trāns agrōs nōn errābunt.
6. I shall sometimes dine in the villa of the queen. Nōnnumquam in villā regīnae cēnābō.
7. The statue of the god is on the altar. Statua (or signum) deī in ārā est.
8. The pigs were under the table. Porcī sub mēnsā erant.
9. Once upon a time there was a queen. Olim erat rēgīna.
10. Julia had loved a poet but the poet loved a servant. Iūlia poētam amāverat, sed poēta servum amāvit.


Exercise 9 (Chapter 11)

1. I see a horse with a donkey. Equum cum asinō videō.
2. The queens were smiling and the girl laughed. Rēgīnae subrīdēbant et puella rīsit.
3. We had written on the white paper* with black ink. In chartā albā atramentō nigrō scrīpserāmus.
4. Yesterday, the pupil studied with the master. Herī discipulus cum magistrō studēbat.
5. The master will teach the pupil at another time. Magister discipulum aliās docēbit.
6. The ambassador will have warned the queen today. Lēgātus regīnam hodiē monuerit.
7. The lamb fears the wolf. Agnus lupum timet.
8. The barbarians frighten the lords but not the prisoners. Barbarī dominōs sed nōn captīvōs terrent.
9. You (pl.) will soon destroy the camp of the enemies. Castra inimīcōrum (or hostium) mox delēbitis.
10. We had had some horses. Aliquot equōs habuerāmus.

* Use charta, -ae (f.), a well-attested classical word.


Exercise 10 (Chapter 11)

1. I see the bright stars. Stēllās clārās videō.
2. You were lighting the cottage with a small candle. Casam parvā candēlā illūminābās.
3. O my dear son, a villain has stolen the queen’s jewels. O mī fīlī cāre, scelerātus gemmās rēgīnae abstulit.
4. The girl will paint a picture*. Puella tabulam pinget.
5. The barbarians had murdered the ambassador. Barbarī lēgātum necāverant.
6. We shall have eaten the cook’s cake. Placentam coquī mandūcāverimus.
7. The children are playing in the large garden. Liberī in hortō magnō lūdunt.
8. The child was writing letters on the wooden table. Puer lītterās in mēnsā ligneā scrībēbat.
9. The poet had not recently praised the beautiful woman. Poēta fēminam pulchram nōn nūper laudāverat.
10. Phidias sculpted a statue out of stone. Phidias statuam lapide sculpsit.

*For “to paint a picture” use tabulam pingere.



Exercise 11 (Chapter 11)

1. I often jump but I never run. Saepe saliō sed numquam currō.
2. Octavius had heard a nightingale* by night. Octāvius lusciniam nocte (or noctū) audīverat.
3. We were sleeping on the grass. In herbā dormiēbāmus.
4. The queen opened the small box. Rēgīna arcam parvam aperuit.
5. The barbarians will hinder our plans. Barbarī cōnsilia nostra impedient.
6. The ambassador’s cook saw the queen’s servants. Coquus lēgātī servōs rēgīnae vīdit.
7. You will have punished the neighbour’s son. Fīlium vīcīnī pūnīveris.
8. O men! You will listen to the ambassador. O virī! Lēgātum audiētis.
9. I guard the lord’s lambs. Agnōs dominī custōdiō.
10. My uncle had arrived recently in the fatherland. Avunculus meus (or patruus) ad patriam nūper advēnerat.

*Luscinia, -ae (f.), a word from Horace.


Exercise 12 (Chapter 11)

1. The doctor has not cured my sick child. Medicus meum infantem aegrōtum nōn sānāvit (or cūrāvit).
2. I am reading the book of an unknown poet. Librum poētae ignōtī legō.
3. The little boy will fear the bad wolf. Puer parvus lupum malum timēbit.
4. The poet loves a beautiful girl. Poēta puellam pulchram amat.
5. The grumpy* goat had eaten the cow’s carrot in the barn. Capra querula carōtam vaccae in horreō mandūcāverat.
6. The doctor will give medicine to your sick servant. Medicus medicīnam tuō famulō aegrōtō dabit.
7. I shall have been a famous athlete. Athlēta celeber (or praeclārus) fuerō.
8. The master will punish the lazy pupil. Magister discipulum ignāvum puniet.
9. The girl had heard a sudden, loud  noise in the cottage. Puella in casā strepitum subitum audīverat.
10. The diligent farmer does not sleep by day. Agricola dīligens diē (or interdiū) nōn dormit.

* Use querulus, -a, -um.


Exercise 13 (Chapter 12)

1. I will give you a new present. Dōnum novum tibī dabō.
2. The new prisoner told me a lie, but the enemies had already betrayed us. Captīvus novus mihi mendācium dīxit, sed inimīcī nōs iam prōdiderant.
3. Bear one another’s burdens if you have learnt true virtue. Aliūs alteriūs onera portāte sī virtūtem veram didicistis.
4. The traveller will have led you into an unknown country. Viātor in patriam ignōtam tē dūxerit.
5. The boy did not obey me. Puer mihi nōn pāruit.
6. The beautiful queen gave me her golden ring. Rēgīna pulchra mihi ānulum aureum dedit.
7. O lazy pupil, where is your new book? O Discipule ignāve, ubi tuus liber novus est?
8. The brave soldier wounded the criminal with his sword. Mīles fortis scelestum gladiō vulnerāvit.
9. I was telling you my story. Fābulam (meam) tibī dīcēbam.
10. The barbarians had stolen their arms. Barbarī arma eōrum abstulerant.


Exercise 14 (Chapter 12)

1. This is a good cook. Hic est coquus bonus.
2. That is a clever man. Ille est callidus.
3. Will you give me this wooden box? Dabisne hanc arcam ligneam mihi?
4. I had never seen that blackbird before. Numquam anteā eam merulam vīderam.
5. Is this boy your son? Puerne hic est fīlius tuus?
6. My children are clever but yours are not. Liberī meī callidī sunt, sed tuī nōn.
7. My cook made these cakes for you. Coquus meus placentās hās prō tē (or tibī) fēcit.
8. You will not touch those precious cups. Eōs (or illōs) calicēs pretiōsōs nōn tangēs.
9. Did you hear that? Audivistīne illud (or id)?
10. Yesterday, I walked in this beautiful garden. Herī in hōc hortō pulchrō ambulāvī.


Exercise 15 (Chapter 12)

1. The queen herself saw me yesterday. Rēgīna ipsa herī mē vīdit.
2. We love the same wooden box. Eandem arcam ligneam amāmus.
3. I have never seen the other of the two brothers. Alterum frātrem numquam vīdī.
4. This is another of my hens. Haec est alia gallinārum meārum.
5. I told him this myself. Hoc eī ipse dīxī.
6. I had never been in another land. Numquam in terrā aliā fueram.
7. The proud praise themselves. Superbī sē laudant.
8. Julia and Terentia have given a blue dress to the same girl. Iūlia et Terentia stolam caeruleam eīdem puellae dedērunt.
9. These are my friends but the others are my enemies. Hī sunt amīcī meī sed aliī inimīcī.
10. Have you [pl.] seen another child? Vīdistisne alium infantem?


Exercise 16 (Chapter 12)

1. My friend has six good children and two beautiful ones. Amīcus meus sex līberōs bonōs et duōs pulchrōs habet.
2. The second horse is white but the third one is black. Equus secundus est albus sed tertius niger.
3. Virgil is the foremost of Roman poets. Vergilius est prīmus poētārum Romānōrum.
4. The wolf had eaten two of my lambs. Lupus duōs agnōs meōs mandūcāverat.
5. The cook will make three cakes for the ambassador’s banquet. Coquus trēs placentās prō conviviō lēgātī faciet.
6. Yesterday, we saw the same man three times. Herī eundem ter vīdimus.
7. I had already seen the queen once. Rēgīnam semel iam vīderam.
8. Julius and Pompey, you will have invaded the land of the barbarians for the seventh time. Iūlī Pompeīque, terram barbarōrum septimum invāseritis.
9. “Where are your twelve hens.” “I do not know.” “Ubi sunt duodecim gallinae tuae?” “Nesciō.”
10. The fourth athlete will come soon. Athlēta quartus mox veniet.


Exercise 17 (Chapter 12)

1. That British girl is loved by a tribune. Ea (or illa) puella Britannica ā tribūnō amātur.
2. This house was built by my uncle. Domus haec ab avunculō (or ā patruō) aedificāta est.
3. The golden box will be opened by the queen. Arca aurea ā regīnā aperiētur.
4. The Romans had been frightened by many barbarians. Rōmānī ā multīs barbarīs territī erant.
5. I was being blamed for [ob] our delay. Ob moram nostram culpābar.
6. You will have been happy for a long time. Felix diū fueris.
7. My friends were praised by the wise teacher. Amīcī meī ā magistrō sapientī laudātī sunt.
8. Helena’s beauty has been praised by many poets. Helenae pulchritudō ā multīs poetīs laudāta est.
9. You were being led into an ambush. In īnsidiās dūcēbāris.
10. The games of the young men were hindered by a great storm. Adulēscentium (or iuvenum) lūdī magnā tempestāte impeditī sunt.


Exercise 18 (Chapter 13)

1. Your (pl.) king is just and brave. Rēx vester iūstus et fortis est.
2. My father works and sings sweet songs. Pater meus labōrat et dulcia carmina cantat.
3. My good mother often smiled. Mea mater bona saepe subrīdēbat.
4. The robber had wounded my sister’s head. Latrō caput sorōris meae vulnerāverat.
5. This beautiful maiden loves a brave soldier. Haec pulchra virgō mīlitem fortem amat.
6. This man will be sent into a dark prison for he is guilty. Hic in obscūrum carcerem mittētur nam est nocēns.
7. We are often punished by our peevish old uncle. Ā nostrō patruō (or avunculō) querulō et veterī saepe pūnīmur.
8. A short speech will be made* by Cicero. Oratiō brevis ā Cicerōne habēbitur.
9. We are writing a song** about a gentle girl and a flower. Carmen dē puellā dulcī et flōre scrībimus.
10. The cruel king killed the innocent children. Rēx crūdēlis lībērōs innocentēs necāvit (or occīdit).

* Latin says “to have a speech”.

** The expression carmen scribere is good Latin.


Exercise 19 (Chapter 13)

1. The country was finally saved by the brave king. Tandem patria ā rēge fortī servāta est.
2. The gentle lamb had been suddenly attacked by a cruel lion. Agnus dulcis ā leōne crūdēlī subitō oppugnātus erat.
3. Enough loaves for the huge army had scarcely been baked by three bakers. Satis pānum (or panium or pānēs) prō exercitū ingentī vix ā tribus pīstōribus coctī erant.
4. The bird’s song was often listened to by the sad prisoner. Avis carmen ā captīvō tristī saepe audiēbātur.
5. My friend had been attacked but he immediately defended himself. Amīcus meus oppugnātus erat sed statim sē dēfendit.
6. Were you warned in vain about this new danger? Frūstrāne dē hōc perīculō novō monitus es?
7. Heavy stones were carried by the old men. Lapidēs gravēs ā senibus ferēbantur.
8. At first I approved this philosopher but then I despised his teaching. Prīmum hunc philosophum probābam, sed tunc doctrinam contempsī.
9. Your leg will be cured by the powerful medicine of the wise woman. Crūs tuum sapientis mulieris potentī medicīnā cūrābitur.
10. This consul often changes the law. Hic cōnsul saepe lēgem mūtat.


Exercise 20 (Chapter 13)

1. I once saw the king cooking. Rēgem coquentem semel vīdī.
2. The land to be ploughed is fertile. Terra aranda fertilis est.
3. The children were about to eat. Līberī mandūcātūrī erant.
4. Having been at last set free the ambassadors of Greece will praise the judge. Graeciae lēgātī tandem līberātī iūdicem laudābunt.
5. My brother was about to laugh. Frāter meus erat rīsūrus.
6. The gentle mother calmed the mind of the frightened child. Māter dulcis animum puerī territī sēdāvit.
7. We were eating a rabbit cooked with spices. Cunīculum condimentīs coctum mandūcābāmus.
8. You were about to meet the general. Imperātōrem conventūrus erās.
9. The slave will kill the chicken that ought to be cooked. Servus pullum coquendum necābit.
10. My father had been attacked by a criminal worthy to be punished*. Pater meus ā scelestō pūniendō (or castigandō) oppugnātus erat.

*Use a gerundive to translate the last four words.


Exercise 21 (Chapter 14)

1. This man has never used a sword. Hic gladiō numquam ūsus est.
2. The king will promise to set three prisoners free. Rēx trēs captīvōs līberāre pollicēbitur.
3. These men are flattering you. Hī tibī blandiuntur.
4. The sun was rising. Sōl oriēbātur.
5. The courtiers imitate their lord. Aulicī dominum imitantur.
6. If the sailors drink too much wine you will have encouraged them in this. Sī nautae nimis vīnī bibunt eōs in hōc hortātus eris.
7. You shall speak for the just cause if you are a just advocate. Prō iūstā causā loquēris sī iūstus advocātus es.
8. We had been accustomed to suffer poverty. Paupertātem patī solitī erāmus.
9. One of the two has died and the other has rejoiced. Alter mortuus est alterque gāvīsus est.
10. I have never dared kill a fly. Muscam numquam necāre ausus sum.


Exercise 22 (Chapter 14)

1. The sweet fruit (s.) will be eaten by those ducks. Frūctus dulcis ab anatibus illīs (or istīs or iīs) mandūcābitur.
2. The prophet cured the leper by the touch of his hand. Prophēta leprōsum tactū manūs cūrāvit.
3. At length, Marcus saw the face of the beloved maiden. Marcus tandem dilectæ virginis vultum vidit.
4. Huntsman, have you heard the sound of the bronze horn? O Venātor, audīvistīne sonitum cornūs aēneī?
5. It was a long day. Erat longus diēs.
6. Hope is always to be kept for in three days Cæsar will be in Britain. Spēs semper servanda est nam tribus diēbus Caesar in Britanniā erit.
7. Regulus did not stay in Rome because he had promised this to the Carthaginians. Rēgulus Rōmae nōn morātus est quia hoc Carthāginiēnsibus pollicitus erat.
8. Do you see the first line of battle? Vidēsne prīmam aciem?
9. A long poem has been written by Lucretius about the nature of things. Longum carmen ā Lucrētiō dē rērum nātūrā scriptum est.
10. These men fight with long bows and short arrows. Hī arcubus† longīs sagittīsque brevibus pugnant.

† You probably wrote “arcibus”, but  arcus, a bow, keeps the archaic ablative form “arcubus”.


Exercise 23 (Chapter 14)

1. Marcus was lying on the ground. Marcus humī iacēbat.
2. After the return of Cæsar we shall live in Rome. Post Caesaris reditum Rōmae habitābimus.
3. Are you happy at home? Esne felix domī?
4. Our friends lived in the country. Amīcī nostrī rūrī habitābant.
5. The son of the leader of the barbarians was not cured by a Roman doctor. Fīlius dūcis barbarōrum ā medicō Rōmānō nōn cūrātus est.
6. My son had been cured by this medicine. Fīlius meus hāc medicīnā cūrātus erat.
7. We were being delayed by an ambush. Insidiīs dētinēbāmur.
8. The British maidens had been attacked by robbers. Virginēs Britannicae ā latrōnibus oppugnātae erant.
9. The weeping mother looks after her wounded child. Māter flēns puerum vulnerātum custōdit.
10. Brutus’s new house was burnt by a villain in the middle of the night. Domus Brūti nova mediā nocte ā scelerātō incēnsa est.


Exercise 24 (Chapter 14)

1. I came, I saw, I conquered. Vēnī, vīdī, vīcī.
2. The door being open, we heard the lion approaching. Iānuā apertā, leōnem appropinquantem audīvimus.
3. The lamb was frightened when it saw the wolf. Agnus vidēns lupum territus est.
4. When the city had been destroyed the barbarians invaded the country. Urbe dēlētā barbarī terram invāsērunt.
5. I shall believe you when I see him. Eō vīsō tibī crēdam.
6. Peace having been obtained, the gates of war were closed by the Romans. Pace obtentā bellī portae ā Rōmānīs clausae sunt.
7. We came to this city three years ago, but now we are going home. Abhinc trēs annōs ad hanc urbem vēnimus sed nunc domum īmus.
8. Yesterday the speaker was speaking for three hours. Herī orātor trēs hōrās loquēbātur.
9. The rest of the men were poor. Reliquī (virī or virōrum) erant pauperēs.
10. Do the courtiers always please the king? Placentne aulicī semper rēgi?


Exercise 25 (Chapter 14)

1. This is a book to be read by wise men. Hic liber est ā sapientibus legendus.
2. Having heard the arguments of Cicero my opinion concerning the gods is confirmed. Cicerōnis argūmentīs auditīs sententia mea dē deīs (or dīs) confirmāta est.
3. This house is not suitable for that family. Haec domus illī familiae nōn idōnea est.
4. These frying-pans are useful to the cook. Hae sartāginēs coquō ūtilēs sunt (or prōsunt).
5. Ophelia died of sorrow six years ago. Ophelia abhinc sex annōs dolōre mortua est.
6. The learned slave had come from a Greek ship. Servus doctus ā nāvī Graecā vēnerat.
7. The joyful legions reached Italy in two weeks*. Legiōnēs laetae ad Italiam duābus hebdomadibus pērvēnērunt.
8. The criminal is unworthy of praise. Scelestus laude indignus est.
9. Vercingetorix was coming from Paris. Vercingetorix ā Lūtētiā veniēbat.
10. When Portia knew the death of her husband, she wept for three days and nights. Portia, maritī morte cognitā, trēs diēs noctēsque lacrimābat (or flēbat).

* For “week” use hebdomas, hebdomadis (f.). This is a Greek word adopted into Latin with the spread of Christianity. Apart from the unfamiliar nominative singular it declines according to the third declension.


Exercise 26 (Chapter 15)

1. I can walk now. Nunc ambulāre possum.
2. Brutus will soon be able to talk again. Brūtus mox iterum loquī poterit.
3. The Romans could not see the Britons on account of the dense woods. Rōmānī ob densās silvās Britannōs vidēre nōn poterant.
4. My friend was able to defend himself with the greatest courage. Amīcus meus maximā audāciā sē dēfendere poterat.
5. Do you want to walk in the garden with me? Vīsne mēcum in hortō ambulāre?
6. I prefer to read a book in my bedroom. Mālō librum in cubiculō legere.
7. Did you want to swim in that muddy river? Voluistīne in illō flumine lūteō nāre?
8. I had preferred to stay at home. Domī manēre mālueram.
9. You will not be able to study Latin tomorrow. Linguae latīnae studēre crās nōn poteris.
10. The children will have preferred to play in the house. Liberī domī lūdere māluerint.

Exercise 27 (Chapter 15)

1. A good tree will never bear bad fruit. Arbor bona numquam fructum malum feret.
2. The woman was carrying a baby in her arms. Mulier īnfantem in brachiīs ferēbat.
3. I cannot bear this burden for I am not an ass. Hoc onus ferre nōn possum, nam asinus nōn sum.
4. I shall not bear this burden  for so great a burden is not to be borne.. Hoc onus nōn feram nam tantum onus ferendum nōn est.
5. Caesar devoted himself* to words and to deeds**. Caesar dicendō faciendōque sē operam dabat.
6. Quintus was going to tell his mother these things. Quintus haec mātrī dicturus erat.
7. The barbarian king crossed the river in a small boat. Rēx barbarus flūmen in parvā lintrī trānsīvit.
8. And the word was made flesh. Et verbum carō factum est.
9. Cicero soon became the most eloquent advocate. Cicerō mox facundissimus advocātus factus est.
10. The queen always eats from a golden plate. Rēgīna semper ē catillō aureō mandūcat.

* Use operam dare.

** Translate as if the Latin said “to saying and to doing”.

Exercise 28 (Chapter 15)

1. Pilate says to him, “What is truth?” Dicit eī Pilātus, “Quid est vēritās?”
2. When did you begin to learn Latin? Quandō linguam Latīnam discere incēpistī?
3. Had your son begun to learn Greek or Latin? Fīliusne tuus Graecam an linguam Latīnam discere incēperat?
4. The Romans and the Carthaginians will have begun the battle tomorrow. Rōmānī et Poenī crās proelium incēperint.
5. I well remember these things. Bene hōrum meminī.
6. You will remember, therefore, the vines and the most beautiful flowers of your fatherland. Vīneārum igitur et flōrum patriae pulcherrimōrum memineris.
7. It behoves you to drive out the enemy of the fatherland. Patriae hostēs expellere tē oportet.
8. Foolish goat, a book is to be read, not to be eaten! Stulta capra, liber legendus est, nōn mandūcandus!
9. Yesterday our allies loved us but today they hate us. Herī sociī nōs amābant sed hodie ōdērunt.
10. The priests of the Gauls often remembered their dreams. Sacerdōtēs Gallōrum saepe somniōrum meminerant.

Exercise 29 (Chapter 15)

1. It wearies me to hear your parrot. Psittacum tuum audīre mē taedet.
2. It vexes Marcus not to be able to come to the banquet. Piget Marcum ad convīvium venīre nōn posse.
3. It pleases you to stay here. Hīc manēre tibī placet.
4. It was unbecoming for Roman citizens to live in a barbarous country. Cīvēs Rōmānī in terrā barbarā habitāre dēdecēbat.
5. These soldiers prefer to drink wine. Hī mīlitēs vīnum bibere mālunt.
6. It will please Julius to sail on the river more swiftly than the others. Aliīs velōcius in flumine nāvigāre Iūliō libēbit (or Iulio placēbit or Iūlium iūvābit).
7. My friend will not be able to go with you. Amīcus meus tēcum īre nōn poterit.
8. This boy hates learning. Hic puer discere ōdit.
9. The custom of reading books is praised in this country. Librōs legendī cōnsuētūdō in hāc terrā laudātur.
10. A language is learned by listening and speaking. Lingua audiendō loquendōque discitur.

Exercise 30 (Chapter 15)

1. I went there to see my friends. Illuc iī (or ivī) ad amīcōs videndōs.
2. This new soldier is in great fear of fighting. Hic mīles novus in timōre magnō pugnandī est.
3. My daughters love dancing. Fīliae meae saltāre amant.
4. Cicero was the greatest of our orators. Cicerō maximus erat ōrātōrum nostrōrum.
5. My father is the best of men. Pater meus est optimus virōrum.
6. The poor fisherman is happier than the king. Pauper piscātor felicior est rēge (or quam rēx).
7. I can swim faster than you. Velōcius nāre possum quam tū.
8. You [pl.] sing more sweetly than we do. Dulcius canitis quam nōs.
9. The dress of Minerva was whiter than snow. Minervae stola nive candidior erat.
10. The sharpest knife cuts the most easily. Culter acūtissimus facillimē secat.


Exercise 31 (Chapter 16)

1. I fear the man who came to Rome yesterday. Virum timeō quī herī Rōmam vēnit.
2. Do you like the roses that the graceful youth has given me? Amāsne rosās quās mihi dedit gracilis adulēscēns?
3. We admire the soldiers who fight bravely. Mīlitēs admīrāmur quī fortiter pugnant.
4. Here is the shepherd whose sheep were eaten by the wolf. Ecce pāstor cuius ovēs ā lupō mandūcātae sunt.
5. This is the girl to whom the chief of the barbarians gave the ring. Haec est puella cui dux barbarōrum anulum dedit.
6. The soldiers have never liked the unknown man whom Caesar follows. Mīlitēs virum ignōtum quem Caesar sequitur numquam amāvērunt.
7. Socrates is the only master whom I wish to please. Sōcratēs est sōlus magister cui placēre volō.
8. Are these the peasants whose houses were burnt by the angry lord? Suntne hī rusticī quōrum domūs ab irātō dominō incensae sunt?
9. Will not the slave steal the sweet cake that the baker has brought us Nonne servus dulcem placentam quam nōbis pistor tulit auferet?
10. These are the men to whom I shall give the precious box. Hī virī quibus arcam pretiōsam dabō sunt.


Exercise 32 (Chapter 16)

1. Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf? Quis lupum magnum et malum timet?
2. To whom did the gods give the greatest gift? Cui maximum dōnum dī dedērunt?
3. By whom had so many soldiers been wounded? A quō tot mīlitēs vulnerātī erant?
4. Together with whom* will you [pl.] walk across the mountains? Unā quōcum (or quicum) trāns montēs ambulābitis?
5. Whom did our father call? Quem pater noster vocāvit?
6. Who were these two tall men? Quī erant hī duo virī prōcērī?
7. Do you remember the name of the consul who wrote the new law? Meministīne nōminis cōnsulis quī novam lēgem scrīpsit?
8. We do not know whose hat this is. Nescimus cuius petasus est hic.
9. To which of the farmers does this dog belong? Cui agricolārum est hic canis?
10. I have begun to hate the men who forget their duty. Eōs quī officium neglegunt ōdisse incēpī.

*The preposition cum with a relative or interrogative often becomes quicum in the singular.


Exercise 33 (Chapter 16)

Use supines for sentences 2, 5 and 7. Otherwise use the gerund or the gerundive to express intention or purpose.

1. The huntsman killed the huge stag in order to eat it. Venātor cervum ingentem necāvit ad mandūcandum.
2. We have come to see. Vīsum vēnimus.
3. The philosopher can enjoy peace in adversity. Philosophus pāce in rebus adversīs fruī potest.
4. On the doctor’s advice*, you must drink this horrible** medicine in order to get better.*** Medicō monente hanc nauseosam medicīnam bibere debēs ad melius habendum.
5. The songs of Virgil are sweet to read. Vergiliī carmina dulcia sunt lectū.
6. Scipio called his soldiers in order to destroy Carthage. Scipiō mīlitēs vocāvit ad Carthāginem delendam..
7. This knife is agreeable to use. Hic culter est gratus ūsū.
8. That stupid man is easily deceived. Ille stultus facile fallitur.
9. Are your daughters taught literature? Fīliaene tuae litteras docentur?
10. Portia went towards the bed in order to kiss her child. Portia cubīlī (or lectum) appropinquābat ad īnfantem deosculandum.

* Use an ablative absolute: the doctor advising.

** Nauseosus, -a, -um.

*** Melius habere.


Exercise 34 (Chapter 16)

Use gerundives where possible.

1. A house ought to be built here. Domus hic aedificanda est.
2. These fields ought to be ploughed. Hī agrī arandī sunt.
3. That pupil ought to be praised, for he is worthy of a reward. Ille discipulus laudandus enim remunerandus est.
4. The journey ought to be made at once. Iter statim faciendum est.
5. For the last time I walked in the city that was soon to be destroyed. Ultimā vice ambulābam in urbe mox delenda.
6. You will give this wooden box to the man who ought to be feared. Timendō virō hanc arcam ligneam dabis.
7. This river ought to be crossed in a smaller ship. Hoc flūmen in nave minore transeundum est.
8. The wicked slave despises the man he ought to admire. Servus improbus eum contemnit quem admīrārī debet.
9. These children must be more safely guarded. Hī liberī securius cūstōdiendī sunt.
10. Such  things ought to be better known. Talia melius cōgnoscenda sunt.


Exercise 35 (Chapter 16)

1. Which of these flowers do you prefer? Quem hōrum flōrum māvis?
2. Which of these men will Brutus give the money to? Cui hōrum (or virōrum) Brūtus pecūniam dabit?
3. Whose black cat is this? Cui est haec fēlēs atra?
4. Do not the guardians know whose cloak it is? Nonne sciunt cūstōdēs cuius (or cui) haec paenula est?
5. I did not remember the name of the shepherd with whom I had talked. Nōn memineram nōmen pastōris quōcum locūtus eram./td>
6. We were talking to the nurse whom we met yesterday. Cum nūtrīce quam herī convēnimus loquēbāmur
7. Will these courageous sailors remember the names of the men whom they saved? Meminerintne hī nautae audacēs nōmina virōrum quōs servāvērunt?
8. Whom [pl.] did you [pl.] see with the white horse? Quōs (cum) albō equō vīdistis?
9. To whom did your grandfather give the old ring? Cui avus tuus anulum veterem dedit?
10. Where is the citizen with whom the slaves were laughing? Ubi est cīvis quōcum servī rīdēbant?


Exercise 36 (Chapter 17)

1. Let us sit here and talk of ancient times. Hīc sedeāmus et dē antiquīs temporibus loquāmur.
2. It is the soldier’s task to save the state rather than his life. Mīlitis officium est rem publicam praeterquam vītam suam servāre.
3. Since you study diligently, you will learn much. Cum diligenter studeās, multum discēs.
4. When we were listening to the speech, we heard a very loud noise. Cum orātiōnī audīrēmus, ingentem strepitum audīvimus.
5. Where are so many soldiers to sleep? Ubi tot mīlitēs dormīturī sunt?
6. The boy placed a frog in the bed in order to frighten his sister. Puer rānam in cubīlī posuit ut sorōrem terrēret.
7. I did not read the letter lest I should suffer by reading it. Epistulam nōn lēgī ne legendō paterer.
8. If you are Britons, do not follow this man. Sī Britannī estis ne hunc sequāminī.
9. The emperor will not eat that food, fearing lest it should be poisoned. Imperator illum cibum nōn mandūcābit, timēns ne venēnātus sit.
10. Children! Do not play in the kitchen. Liberī, ne luserītis in culīnā.


Exercise 37 (Chapter 17)

1. Let the whole town be destroyed. Oppidum tōtum deleātur.
2. Daughter, may you be loved by a noble and brave man. Fīlia, ā virō nōbilī fortīque amēris.
3. Since we have been heard, let us leave immediately. Cum audītī sīmus statim abeāmus.
4. When the Egyptian prisoners come to Rome, you will be astonished. Ubi captīvī Aegyptiacī Rōmam venient attonitus eris.
5. My son will watch the gladiators in order to imitate them. Fīlius meus gladiātorēs spectābit ut eōs imitētur.
6. This courtier flattered the queen in order to be praised by her. Hic legātus rēgīnae blandiēbātur ut ab ea laudārētur.
7. The boy lied lest he should be punished. Puer mentītus est ne punīrētur.
8. Do not be led into an ambush in the mountains, O noble general. Ne inducērīs in insidiās in montibus, O imperātor nōbilis.
9. The cows will not approach the hive lest they be stung by the bees. Vaccae alveariō nōn appropinquābunt ne ab apibus pungantur.
10. Go out of this city, continue to advance and let nothing hinder you until you have arrived home. Exī (ab) hāc urbe, perge proficiscendō neque aliquid tē impediat dōnec domum perveniās.


Exercise 38 (Chapter 17)

1. Love thy neighbour as thyself. Dīlige proximum tuum sīcut tē ipsum.
2. Destroy the city, soldiers. Dēlēte urbem, mīlitēs.
3. Read first the easier book, then the harder one. Faciliorem librum prīmum, deinde difficiliorem lege.
4. Listen to that philosopher. Illum philosophum audī.
5. Do not frighten the children. Nōlī terrēre līberōs.
6. Stay with me, O my dearest one, until the stars grow cold. Mane mēcum, carissima, dōnec refrigēscant stellae.
7. Leave the silver but bring the gold. Argentum relinque sed aurum fer.
8. If you (s.) want peace prepare war. Sī vīs pācem parā bellum.
9. Hasten [s.] to help us. Festīnā ut nōs adiuvēs. Festina nos adiuvare.
10. Do not be frightened, children. Ne timuērītis, līberī.


Exercise 39 (Chapter 17)

1. Who is the girl with whom you were talking? Quae est puella quācum loquēbāris?
2. Where did the Romans live before they had built Rome? Ubi Rōmānī habitābant antequam Rōmam aedificāverant?
3. Do you wish to harm your friend? (It would surprise the questioner if you did.) Num vīs amīcō nocere?
4. Do you [pl.] not love your country? (It would surprise the questioner if you did not.) Nōnne amātis patriam?
5. Did the shepherd not try to deliver the poor sheep from the wolf? (It would surprise the questioner if he had not.) Nōnne pāstor miseram ovem ā lupō liberāre conātus est?
6. Which is better, to stay here or to go there? Utrum est melius, hīc manere an illuc īre?
7. Shall we choose the apples or the pears? Māla an pira ēligēmus?
8. Was the queen lying in the grass or upon a couch? Regīna in herbā an in cubīlī iacēbat?
9. Did the goat not eat the carrot? (It would surprise the questioner if the goat had not.) Nōnne capra carōtam mandūcāvit?
10. Does the emperor’s daughter want to marry a foolish man? (It would surprise the questioner if she did.) Num imperātoris fīlia ineptō vult nūbere?


Exercise 40 (Chapter 17)

1. How beautiful Cleopatra is! Quam pulchra est Cleopatra!
2. What a good idea! Quam bonum cōnsilium!
3. What a stupid boy! Quam stultus puer!
4. How dirty was the linen to be washed! Quam sordida erant lintea lavanda!
5. How happy the consuls will be if their laws are praised! Quam felicēs erunt cōnsulēs sī lēgēs suae laudantur.
6. What a wonderful story, worthy to be told* a thousand times! Quam mīrabilis fabula, digna quae mīlliēs narrētur!
7. What a savage animal! Quam saevum animal!
8. What a great general! Quam magnus imperātor!
9. What a short tail for such a long beast! Quam brevis cauda tam longae bestiae!
10. When your father was a tribune, which of the consuls did he favour? Quandō pater tuus tribunus erat, utrī cōnsulum favēbat?

* Here you will need the Latin word for “worthy”, followed by the relative pronoun, followed by the passive subjunctive of the verb.


Exercise 41 (Chapter 18)

1. This is the good consul whom I admire. Hic est bonus cōnsul quem admīror.
2. That is the other consul who was killed. lle est alter cōnsul quī interfectus est.
3. This is the wise maiden to whom I owe so much. Haec est virgō sapiēns cui tantum dēbēō.
4. Watch the parrot which is sitting on the pirate’s shoulder. Specta psittacum quī in pirātae humerō sedet.
5. Behold the girl whom our son says he loves. Ecce puella quam fīlius noster dicit sē amāre.
6. The good women who looked after me when I was sick are to be rewarded. Mulierēs bonae quae aegrōtum mē custōdiēbant remunerandae sunt.
7. Admire [pl.] the queen who delivered the captives. Admīrāminī rēgīnam quae captīvōs līberāvit.
8. Do not call [s.] the countryman with whom I walked yesterday. Ne vocāverīs rusticum quōcum herī ambulābam.
9. This book was written by the philosopher whose statue stands in the market-place. Hic liber ā philosophō cuius statua in forō stat scriptus est.
10. The teachers whose books I had heedlessly bought were using newfangled* methods. Magistrī quōrum librōs incaute ēmeram inaudītīs modīs utēbantur.

*Use inauditus, -a, -um.


Exercise 42 (Chapter 18)

1. I say that you [s.] are wrong. Dico te errare.
2. Brutus said that his slave was not trustworthy. Brutus negāvit servum suum esse fīdum.
3. I know that my sisters are beautiful. Sciō sorōrēs meās esse pulchrās.
4. We think that the dog ate the cake which we cannot find. Putāmus canem mandūcāvisse placentam quam invenīre nōn possumus.
5. My son has denied that he stole an apple. Fīlius meus negāvit sē mālum abstulisse.
6. The general thought that the gates of the city had already been closed. Imperātor putābat urbis portās iam clausās esse.
7. The proud man thinks he is always right. Superbus putat sē semper verum dīcere.
8. How can you say that you have never seen Rome? Quōmodo negāre potēs tē umquam Rōmam vīdisse?
9. Peter says that he was wounded by Paul. Petrus dicit sē ā Paulō vulnerātum esse.
10. Paul says that Peter was wounded by himself. Paulus dicit Petrum ā sē vulnerātum esse.


Exercise 43 (Chapter 18)

1. I said that I did not love that country. Negāvī mē illam terram amāre.
2. We think we can hear the sound of the horn. Putāmus nōs sonitum cornūs audīre posse.
3. The men knew that the king was about to die. Virī sciēbant rēgem moriturum esse.
4. Quintus thinks that the soldier is going to be summoned by the general. Quintus putat mīlitem ā duce citātum īrī.
5. Did you not say that you did not like pears? Nōnne negavistī tē pira amāre?
6. We thought that the destruction of Carthage was a bad plan. Putābāmus Carthaginis ēversiōnem malum cōnsilium esse.
7. We knew that Rome was the most beautiful city. Sciēbāmus Rōmam esse pulcherrimam urbem.
8. The noble Brutus hath told you Caesar was ambitious. Brutus nōbilis vōbīs dīxit Caesarem fuisse ambitiōsum.
9. The teacher has told you to sit down. Magister vōs sedere iussit.
10. Cicero wrongly believed himself to be a great poet. Cicerō sē poetam magnum esse falsō arbitrātus est.


Exercise 44 (Chapter 18)

1. Can you not admire a soldier who fights bravely? Nōnne potēs admīrārī mīlitem quī fortiter pugnat?
2. Do you not think that the man who was speaking is ugly? Nōnne putās virum quī loquēbātur foedum esse?
3. Which do you think is better: to admit that one has erred or to assert that one is right? Utrum arbitrāris melius esse: sē errāvisse fatērī an sē vērus dīcere adfirmāre?
4. Did the pirates say they knew where the box was hidden? Dīxeruntne pirātae sē scīre ubi celātam esse arcam?
5. Shall we tell our friends that our grandfather built that great house? Dicēmusne amīcīs nostrīs avum nostrum illam magnam domum aedificāvisse?
6. The king announced that he was soon to marry a maiden worthy of all praise. Rēx nuntiāvit sē mox in matrimōnium ducturum esse virginem omnī laude dignam.
7. Tarquinius is said to have feared neither men nor the gods but only the dentist’s forceps.* Tarquīnius dicitur neque hominēs neque deōs timuisse sed sōlum dentarpagam.
8. We think that even Augustus will admire the new statue of Cicero. Arbitrāmur ipsum Augustum admīrāturum īrī nōvam Cicerōnis statuam.
9. Brutus will have informed Caesar that his [Caesar’s] slave is not trustworthy. Brutus Caesarem certiorem fēcerit servum eius nōn esse fīdum.
10. We had wanted you [pl.] to come but we feared that you would not come. Voluerāmus vōs vēnisse, sed timēbāmus ne nōn venīrētis.

*Use dentarpaga, -ae (f.) to translate “the dentist’s forceps”. The word is found in Varro (116 B.C. – 27 B.C.)


Exercise 45 (Chapter 18)

1. The lazy students think that this book is difficult to read. Discipulī ignāvī putant hunc librum difficilem lectu.
2. Each thought that the other was wrong. Uterque alterum putābat errāre.
3. The citizens know that Caesar came secretly to listen to the speech of Cicero. Cīvēs sciunt Caesarem clam vēnisse ut Cicerōnis orātīōnem audīret.
4. Do you think that the Greeks have left Troy in order to lurk nearby? Putāsne Graecōs Troiā abīisse ut prope lateant?
5. I once saw the doctor who had tried to cure me when I was a child. Olim medicum quī mē puerum curāre conātus est vīdī.
6. It is clearer than daylight that the mice will leave when the cat has come. Lūce clarius est murēs fēle veniente abīturōs esse.
7. Do you think that our soldier was abandoned when he was wounded? Putāsne mīlitem nostrum vulnerātum derelictum esse.
8. Do you not think the judge acted too severely in condemning to death* a man who stole only one loaf? Nōnne putās iudicem nimīs sevēre ēgisse virum capitis damnandō quī unum tantum pānem abstulisset?
9. Let no one claim that an innocent man was killed by so merciful** a lord. Nemō adfirmet virum innocentem ā tam clemente dominō interfectum esse.
10. Let the man who saved me from my enemies be rewarded by my sons. Ille quī mē ab inimīcīs meīs servāvit ā fīliīs meīs remūnērētur.

* For “to condemn to death”, use capitis damnare.

** Use clemens, -entis.